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Introduction - Principles and values associated with clean sport

Anti-doping programs are founded on the intrinsic value of sport. This intrinsic value is often referred to as
"the spirit of sport": the ethical pursuit of human excellence through the dedicated perfection of each
Athlete’s natural talents.

Anti-doping programs seek to protect the health of Athletes and to provide the opportunity for Athletes to
pursue human excellence without the Use of Prohibited Substances and Prohibited Methods.
Anti-doping programs seek to maintain the integrity of sport in terms of respect for rules, other competitors,
fair competition, a level playing field, and the value of clean sport to the world.
The spirit of sport is the celebration of the human spirit, body and mind. It is the essence of Olympism and
is reflected in the values we find in and through sport, including:
• Health
• Ethics, fair play and honesty
• Athletes’ rights as set forth in the Code
• Excellence in performance


Athletes’, ASP’s and other groups’ rights and responsibilities under the Code
Rights and Responsibilities

  • Athletes, Athlete Support Personnel and other groups who are subject to anti-doping rules all have rights and responsibilities under the World Anti-Doping Code. Part Three of the Code outlines these for each stakeholder in the anti-doping system.

  • It is especially important that athletes and Athlete Support Personnel know and understand Code Art. 21 (Additional Roles and Responsibilities of Athletes and Other Persons), particularly Art. 21.1 (Roles and Responsibilities of Athletes), Art. 21.2 (Roles and Responsibilities of Athlete Support Personnel) and Art. 21.3 (Roles and Responsibilities of Other Persons Subject to the Code).

  • Athletes’ Rights

  • This section presents a summary of the key athlete rights. It is important that both athletes and Athlete Support Personnel know and understand these.

  • Ensuring that athletes are aware of their rights and these are respected is vital to the success of clean sport. Athlete rights exist throughout the Code and International Standards and they include:
    • Equality of opportunity
    • Equitable and Fair Testing programs
    • Medical treatment and protection of health rights
    • Right to justice
    • Right to accountability
    • Whistle-blower rights
    • Right to education
    • Right to data protection
    • Rights to compensation
    • Protected Persons Rights
    • Rights during a Sample Collection Session
    • Right to B sample analysis
    • Other rights and freedoms not affected
    • Application and standing

  • The Athletes’ Anti-Doping Rights Act sets out these rights and responsibilities. For more information, you can refer directly to the document here: Athletes’ Anti-Doping Rights Act.

    Athletes’ Responsibilities

  • It is equally important that athletes are aware of their anti-doping responsibilities.
    Athlete Support Personnel should also familiarise themselves with these in order to be able to support their athletes. These include:
    • Knowing and following IFI Anti-Doping Rules and any other applicable Anti-Doping Rules
    • Taking full responsibility for what you ingest – make sure that no prohibited substance enters your body and that no prohibited methods are used
    • Informing medical personnel of your obligations as an athlete
    • Cooperating with IFI and other ADOs (WADA, ITA)
    • Being available for sample collection
    • Not working with coaches, trainers, physicians or other Athlete Support Personnel who are ineligible on account of an ADRV, or those who have been criminally convicted or disciplined in relation to doping (see WADA’s Prohibited Association List)
    Further details of these roles and responsibilities can be found in Code Art. 21.1.
    Athletes also have specific rights and responsibilities during the Doping Control Process. Please refer to this section here for more information on this.

    Rights and Responsibilities of Athlete Support Personnel and other groups

  • Like athletes, Athlete Support Personnel and others under the jurisdiction of IFI also have rights and responsibilities as per the Code. These include:
    • Being knowledgeable of anti-doping policies and rules which are applicable to you and to the athlete(s) you support
    • Using your influence on athlete values and behaviours to foster anti-doping attitudes
    • Complying with all anti-doping policies and rules which are applicable to you and the athlete(s) you support
    • Cooperating with the athlete testing program
    • Disclosing to the IFI whether you have committed any Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs) within the previous ten years
    • Cooperating with ADOs investigating ADRVs
    Further details of these roles and responsibilities can be found in Code Art. 21.2 and 21.3.

The principle of strict liability

The principle of strict liability is applied in situations where urine/blood samples collected from an athlete have produced adverse analytical results.

It means that each athlete is strictly liable for the substances found in his or her bodily specimen, and that an anti-doping rule violation occurs whenever a prohibited substance (or its metabolites or markers) is found in bodily specimen, whether or not the athlete intentionally or unintentionally used a prohibited substance or was negligent or otherwise at fault.

Consequences of doping, for example, physical and mental health, social and economic effects, and sanctions

An Athlete’s or other Person’s violation of an anti-doping rule may result in one or more of the following:

(a) Disqualification means the Athlete’s results in a particular Competition or Event are invalidated, with all resulting Consequences including forfeiture of any medals, points and prizes;

(b) Ineligibility means the Athlete or other Person is barred on account of an anti-doping rule violation for a specified period of time from participating in any Competition or other activity or funding as provided in Article 10.12.1;

(c) Provisional Suspension means the Athlete or other Person is barred temporarily from participating in any Competition or activity prior to the final decision at a hearing conducted under Article 8;

(d) Financial Consequences means a financial sanction imposed for an anti-doping rule violation or to recover costs associated with an anti-doping rule violation; and

(e) Public Disclosure or Public Reporting means the dissemination or distribution of information to the general public or Persons beyond those Persons entitled to earlier notification in accordance with Article 14. Teams in Team Sports may also be subject to Consequences as provided in Article 11.

Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs)

Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs):

  • presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites or markers in an athlete’s sample;

  • use or attempted use by an athlete of a prohibited substance or method;

  • evading, refusing, or failing to submit to sample collection by an athlete;

  • whereabouts failures by an athlete;

  • tampering or attempted tampering with any part of doping control by an athlete or other person;

  • possession of a prohibited substance or method by an athlete or athlete support person;

  • trafficking or attempted trafficking in any prohibited substance or method by an athlete or other person;

  • administration or attempted administration by an athlete or other person to any athlete in-competition of any prohibited substance or method; out-of-competition if the substance or method is prohibited out-of-competition;

  • complicity or attempted complicity by an athlete or other person;

  • prohibited association by an athlete or other person;

  • actions by an athlete or other person to discourage or retaliate against reporting to authorities, to frighten someone from reporting suspected doping or to revenge against those who have reported.

Substances and methods on the List

2023 WADA List of prohibited substances and methods in force from 1 January 2023

WADA’s 2023 Prohibited List now in force

The 2023 WADA list of prohibited substance and methods has come into force on 1 January 2023. WADA informs as follows:

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) wishes to remind athletes and all other stakeholders that the 2023 List of Prohibited Substances and Methods (List) enters into force today (1 January). The 2023 List was approved by WADA’s Executive Committee (ExCo) during its meeting on 23 September 2022 and was first published on 29 September 2022.

Major Modifications for 2023

All Major Modifications for 2023 are outlined in the 2023 Summary of Major Modifications and Explanatory Notes.

Major Modification concerning tramadol for 2024

It should be noted that, also on 23 September, the ExCo endorsed the recommendation by WADA’s List Expert Advisory Group to prohibit the narcotic tramadol in competition, effective 1 January 2024.

The delay in implementation is to provide an additional year for broad communication and education of athletes, their entourage and medical personnel so that there is a better understanding of the practical implementation of tramadol prohibition in competition.

It will also give time to the scientific community to adjust the exact procedural details so that fairness can be ensured for athletes. In addition, it gives sports authorities time to develop educational tools for athletes, and for medical and support personnel to address the safe use of tramadol for clinical purposes within anti-doping.

Tramadol has been on WADA’s Monitoring Program and data gathered through that program have indicated significant use in sports. Tramadol abuse, with its dose-dependent risks of physical dependence, opiate addiction and overdoses in the general population, is of concern and has led to it being a controlled drug in many countries. Research studies funded by WADA, as referenced in the Explanatory Note have also confirmed the potential for tramadol to enhance sports performance.

The prohibited list can be found here:

2023 List of Prohibited Substances and Methods

Languages and Formats

The 2023 Prohibited List; the 2023 Summary of Modifications and Explanatory Notes; and the 2023 Monitoring Program are available for download on WADA’s website in English, French and Spanish. The List is also available in Catalan, Croatian, Danish, German and Greek.

Stakeholders wishing to translate the List into other languages are kindly asked to signal their interest to WADA will then provide the necessary files and, once the translation is finalized, will make the translated List available on the Agency’s website.

The List’s mobile-friendly digital edition can be accessed here.

Risks of supplement use

Extreme caution is recommended regarding supplement use. A number of positive tests have been attributed to the misuse of supplements, poor labelling or contamination of dietary supplements. There is no guarantee that any supplement is free from prohibited substances.

Risks of supplements include:
• Manufacturing standards, which are often less strict compared with medicines. These lower standards often lead to supplement contamination with an undeclared prohibited substance;
• Fake or low-quality products which may contain prohibited substances – and be harmful to health;
• Mislabelling of supplements with ingredients wrongly listed and prohibited substances not identified on the product label;
• False claims that a particular supplement is endorsed by ADOs or that it is “safe for athletes”. Remember, ADOs do not certify supplements and product labels may contain misleading messaging.
All athletes should do a risk-benefit assessment if they are considering the use of supplements. The first step of such an assessment is to consider whether a “food-first” approach meets the athlete’s needs. Whenever possible, such an assessment should be done with the support of a certified nutritionist or other qualified professional who is familiar with the anti-doping rules.

Checking Supplements
If, after careful consideration, an athlete chooses to use supplements, they must take the necessary steps to minimise the risks. This includes:
• Thorough research on the type and dose of the supplement, preferably with the advice of a certified nutritionist or other qualified professional who is familiar with the global and any sport-specific anti-doping rules.
• Selecting only those supplements that have been batch-tested by an independent company. Companies that batch-test supplements include Informed Sport, Certified for Sport or Kölner Liste.
Remember, no supplement is 100% risk-free but athletes and Athlete Support Personnel can take certain steps to minimise these risks.
For more information, please refer to the WADA Q&A on nutritional supplements.




Athletes may have illnesses or conditions that require them to take medications or undergo procedures. If the medication or method an athlete is required to use to treat an illness or condition is prohibited as per the World Anti-Doping Agency’s (WADA) Prohibited List a TUE may give that athlete the authorization to use that substance or method while competing without invoking an anti-doping rule violation (ADRV) and applicable sanction. Applications for TUEs are evaluated by a panel of physicians, the TUE Committee (TUEC).

All of the four following criteria must be met (for more details, please refer to the WADA International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions (ISTUE) Article 4.2):
- The athlete has a clear diagnosed medical condition which requires treatment using a prohibited substance or method;
- The therapeutic use of the substance will not, on the balance of probabilities produce significant enhancement of performance beyond the athlete’s normal state of health;
- The prohibited substance or method is an indicated treatment for the medical condition, and there is no reasonable permitted therapeutic alternative;-§ The necessity to use that substance or method is not a consequence of the prior use (without a TUE), of a substance or method which was prohibited at the time of use.

Athletes who are subject to anti-doping rules would need a TUE to take a prohibited substance or use a prohibited method. You should verify with the International Federation Icestocksport (herafter: IFI) to know to whom you need to apply and if you can apply retroactively. First, check if the required medication or method you intend to take, or use is prohibited as per the WADA Prohibited List.
You may also use a ‘check your medication’ online too or ask your NADO if it has one.
You have a responsibility to inform your physician(s) that you are an Athlete bound to anti-doping rules. You and your physician(s) should check the Prohibited List for the substance/method you are prescribed. If the substance/method is prohibited, discuss non-prohibited alternatives, if there are none, apply for a TUE. Remember Athletes have the ultimate responsibility. Contact your NADO or IFI if you are having difficulties.
Then, contact IFI under to determine your competition level and TUE application
If it is determined that you are an International-Level Athlete what means that you are competing in IFI
international events on the official IFI calendar of events you must apply to IFI in advance, as soon as the need arises, unless there are emergency or exceptional circumstances.
For substances prohibited in-competition only, you should apply for a TUE at least 30 days before your next competition, unless one of the exceptions on retroactive TUEs (see below) apply.
Please refer to the section “How to apply to IFI for a TUE?” below.
If you already have a TUE granted by your National Anti-Doping Organization (NADO) IFI applies an automatic recognition from all NADOs or for all substances on the prohibited list.
In such case, please notify IFI that you have a TUE granted by your NADO.
If you are NOT an International-Level Athlete and you have been tested by IFI, IFI recognizes a valid TUE
granted by your NADO (i.e., it satisfies the ISTUE criteria for granting a TUE); unless you are required to apply for recognition of the TUE because you are competing in an international event.
If you are NOT a National-Level Athlete as defined by your NADO and you have been tested by IFI, you must apply for a retroactive TUE to IFI.

Through ADAMS or paper format / electronic TUE form.
IFI encourages to submit TUE applications via ADAMS, together with the required medical information. If you do not have an ADAMS account yet, please contact to have it set up.
Otherwise, please download the IFI’s TUE Application Form (download under: https://www.icestock.sp /anti-doping, and once duly completed and signed, send it together with the required medical file to

Your TUE application must be submitted in legible capital letters or typing.

The medical file must include:
- A comprehensive medical history, including documentation from the original diagnosing physician(s) (where possible);
- The results of all examinations, laboratory investigations and imaging studies relevant to the application.
- Regarding to the costs related to a TUE application those are the responsibility of the Athlete, including any required additional medical examinations, tests, imaging studies, etc.
Any TUE application that is not complete or legible will not be dealt with and will be returned for completion and re-submission.
To assist you and your doctor in providing the correct medical documentation, we suggest consulting the WADA’s
Checklists for TUE applications for guidance and support, and TUE Physician Guidelines for guidance on specific common medical conditions, treatments, substances, etc.
Keep a complete copy of the TUE application form and all medical information submitted in support of your application, and proof that it has been sent.


Testing procedures, including urine, blood and the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP)

Introduction to Doping Control

The aim of testing is to detect and deter doping amongst athletes and to protect clean athletes. Any athlete under the testing jurisdiction of the International Federation Icestocksport may be tested at any time, with no advance notice, in- or out-of-competition, and be required to provide a urine or a blood sample.

Athletes can be tested by IFI, their International Federation or Major Event Organisers. The IFI their anti-doping programs to the International Testing Agency (ITA).

What to expect during the Doping Control Process

The doping control process is clearly defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency. This means that no matter where and when an athlete is tested, the process should remain the same.

The key steps of the doping control process are listed out in this Doping Control resource prepared by the International Testing Agency (also available in Arabic (عربى), Chinese (中文), French (français), German (deutsche), Italian (italiano), Japanese (日本語), Korean (한국어), Portuguese (português), Russian (русский) and Spanish (español).

To learn more about the doping control process, please watch this ITA webinar on urine and blood sample collection.

Rights & Responsibilities during Sample Collection

Athlete rights during sample collection are to:
• Have a representative accompany them during the process
• Request an interpreter, if one is available
• Ask for Chaperone’s/Doping Control Officer’s identification
• Ask any questions
• Request a delay for a valid reason (e.g., attending a victory ceremony, receiving necessary medical attention,  warming down or finishing a training session)
• Request special assistance or modifications to the process
• Record any comments or concerns on the Doping Control Form

Athlete responsibilities during sample collection are to:
• Report for testing immediately if selected
• Show valid identification (usually a government-issued ID)
• Remain in direct sight of the Doping Control Officer or Chaperone
• Comply with the collection procedure

Athlete Biological Passport

The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was introduced in 2009 and is a pillar method in the detection of doping. It is an individual electronic profile that monitors selected athlete biological variables that indirectly reveal the effects of doping. ABP is integrated directly into ADAMS.

If you wish to learn more about ABP, you can watch this ITA webinar recording

Requirements of the RTP, including whereabouts and the use of ADAMS

Requirements for TP athletes

In particular, the athletes included in the IFI Testing Pool shall provide the following whereabouts:

  • an overnight address;

  • competition/event schedule;

  • regular training activities.

For more information, please refer to the ISTI (you can find the link on "Documents & Regulations").

Consequences for TP athletes

As established in the art. 5.5.12 of the IFI AD Rules, an athlete's failure to provide whereabouts information on or before the date required by IFI or the athlete's failure to provide accurate whereabouts information may result in IFI elevating the athlete to IFI's Registered Testing Pool (if one is established) and/or additional appropriate and proportionate non-Code Article 2.4 consequences, established by IFI if any.

Requirements for RTP athletes

According with the art. of the WADA International Standard for Testing and Investigations (ISTI), an athlete who is in a Registered Testing Pool shall:

  • provide accurate and complete information about the athlete's whereabouts during the forthcoming quarter, including where they will be living, training and competing;

  • describe in detail a 60-minute time slot in which to be available at a specific location for control.

Consequences for RTP athletes

Several consequences such as a potential two-year ban from baseball and softball are established in case of missed whereabouts information, in addition to those determined in the art. 10-11 of the same rules.

The athletes are strict liable about the insertion of their whereabouts.

Advice for athletes

Speaking up to share concerns about doping

Anyone who wants to share concerns about Doping please contact:

IFI 2022 annual statistical report of Doping Control activities according to Art. 14.4 WADC
to be published soon

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